Médiumnité – Wikipedia

Visiblement médiatrice de la communication entre les esprits des morts et des êtres humains vivants

Séance dirigée par John Beattie, Bristol, Angleterre, 1872

La médiumnité est la pratique de la médiation supposée de la communication entre les esprits des êtres humains morts et vivants. Les pratiquants sont appelés «médiums» ou «médiums spirituels».[1][2] Il existe différents types de médiumnité ou de canalisation de l'esprit, y compris les tables de seánce, la transe et l'ouija.

La médiumnité a gagné en popularité au cours du XIXe siècle, lorsque les planches ouija étaient utilisées par les classes supérieures comme source de divertissement. Les enquêtes au cours de cette période ont révélé une fraude généralisée – certains pratiquants utilisant des techniques utilisées par des magiciens de scène – et la pratique a commencé à perdre de sa crédibilité.[3][4] La fraude sévit toujours dans l'industrie médium / voyance, avec des cas de tromperie et de ruse découverts à ce jour.[5]

Les chercheurs scientifiques ont tenté de vérifier la validité des allégations de médiumnité. Une expérience entreprise par la British Psychological Society a conduit à la conclusion que les sujets testés ne montraient aucune capacité médiumnique.[6]

Plusieurs variantes différentes de médiumnité ont été décrites; sans doute les formes les plus connues impliquent un esprit censé prendre le contrôle de la voix d'un médium et l'utiliser pour relayer un message, ou où le médium "entend" simplement le message et le transmet. D'autres formes impliquent des matérialisations de l'esprit ou la présence d'une voix et une activité télékinétique.

La pratique est associée à plusieurs systèmes de croyances religieuses tels que le chamanisme, le vodun, le spiritisme, le spiritisme, le candomblé, le vaudou, l'ombanda et certains groupes du nouvel âge.

Concept[edit]

Dans le spiritisme et le spiritisme, le médium a le rôle d'un intermédiaire entre le monde des vivants et le monde des esprits. Les médiums prétendent qu'ils peuvent écouter et relayer les messages des esprits, ou qu'ils peuvent permettre à un esprit de contrôler son corps et de parler à travers lui directement ou en utilisant l'écriture ou le dessin automatique.

Les spirites classent les types de médiumnité en deux catégories principales: "mentale" et "physique":[7]

  • Les médiums mentaux sont censés «s'accorder» au monde des esprits en écoutant, en sentant ou en voyant des esprits ou des symboles.
  • Les médiums physiques sont censés produire la matérialisation des esprits, des apports d'objets et d'autres effets tels que les coups, les coups, les sonneries, etc. en utilisant "l'ectoplasme" créé à partir des cellules de leur corps et de celles des participants à la séance.
  • Pendant les séances, les médiums entreraient en transe, variant de légers à profonds, permettant aux esprits de contrôler leur esprit.[8]

    La canalisation peut être considérée comme la forme moderne de l'ancienne médiumnité, où la "chaîne" (ou le channeller) reçoit prétendument des messages de "l'enseignement-esprit", un "Maître Ascensionné", de Dieu ou d'une entité angélique, mais essentiellement à travers le filtre de sa propre conscience éveillée (ou "Soi Supérieur").[9]

    Histoire[edit]

    Les tentatives de communiquer avec les morts et d'autres êtres humains vivants, alias les esprits, ont été documentées depuis le début de l'histoire humaine. L'histoire de la sorcière d'Endor (dans la dernière édition de la sorcière NIV est rendue moyenne dans le passage) raconte celle qui a élevé l'esprit du prophète décédé Samuel pour permettre au roi hébreu Saül d'interroger son ancien mentor sur une prochaine bataille, comme indiqué dans les livres de Samuel dans le Tanakh juif (la base de l'Ancien Testament).

    La médiumnité est devenue très populaire aux États-Unis et au Royaume-Uni au XIXe siècle après la montée du spiritisme en tant que mouvement religieux. Le spiritisme moderne daterait des pratiques et des conférences des sœurs Fox dans l'État de New York en 1848. Les médiums de transe Paschal Beverly Randolph et Emma Hardinge Britten étaient parmi les conférenciers et les auteurs les plus célèbres sur le sujet au milieu du 19e siècle. Allan Kardec a inventé le terme spiritisme vers 1860.[10] Kardec a affirmé que les conversations avec les esprits par des médiums sélectionnés étaient à la base de son livre The Spirits 'Book et plus tard, de sa collection de cinq livres, Spiritist Codification.

    Certains scientifiques de l'époque qui ont enquêté sur le spiritisme sont également devenus convertis. Ils comprenaient le chimiste Robert Hare, le physicien William Crookes (1832–1919) et le biologiste évolutionniste Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913).[11][12] Le lauréat du prix Nobel, Pierre Curie, s'est intéressé très sérieusement aux travaux du médium Eusapia Palladino.[13] Parmi les autres adeptes éminents, citons le journaliste et pacifiste William T. Stead (1849–1912)[14] et le médecin et auteur Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930).[15]

    Après la révélation de l'utilisation frauduleuse de tours de magie de scène par des médiums physiques tels que les Davenport Brothers et les Bangs Sisters, la médiumnité est tombée en discrédit. Cependant, la religion et ses croyances continuent malgré cela, avec une médiumnité physique et des séances de pratique et une médiumnité de plate-forme venant au premier plan.

    À la fin des années 1920 et au début des années 1930, il y avait environ un quart de million de spirites pratiquants et quelque deux mille sociétés spirites au Royaume-Uni, en plus de microcultures florissantes de médiums de plate-forme et de “ cercles d'origine ''.[16] Le spiritisme continue d'être pratiqué, principalement par le biais de diverses églises spiritualistes confessionnelles aux États-Unis, au Canada, en Australie et au Royaume-Uni. Au Royaume-Uni, plus de 340 églises et centres spiritualistes ouvrent leurs portes au public et des manifestations gratuites de médiumnité sont régulièrement organisées.[17]

    Terminologie[edit]

    Guide spirituel[edit]

    En 1958, la spiritualiste née en Angleterre C. Dorreen Phillips a raconté ses expériences avec un médium au Camp Chesterfield, Indiana: "Dans les séances du révérend James Laughton, il y a beaucoup d'Indiens. Ils sont très bruyants et semblent avoir un grand pouvoir. […] Les petits guides, ou portiers, sont généralement des garçons et des filles indiens [who act] comme des messagers qui aident à localiser les amis spirituels qui souhaitent vous parler. "[18]

    Opérateur spirituel[edit]

    Un esprit qui utilise un médium pour manipuler "l'énergie" voyance ou les "systèmes énergétiques".

    Démonstrations de médiumnité[edit]

    Colin Evans, qui a affirmé que des esprits l'avaient soulevé dans les airs, a été exposé comme une fraude.

    Dans le spiritisme à l'ancienne, une partie des services, généralement vers la fin, est consacrée à des manifestations de médiumnité par le contact avec les esprits des morts. Un exemple typique de cette façon de décrire un service religieux médiumnique se trouve dans l'autobiographie de 1958 de C. Dorreen Phillips. Elle écrit au sujet des services d'adoration au Spiritualist Camp Chesterfield à Chesterfield, Indiana: "Les services ont lieu chaque après-midi, comprenant des hymnes, une conférence sur la philosophie et des démonstrations de médiumnité."[18]

    Aujourd'hui, la «démonstration de médiumnité» fait partie du service religieux dans toutes les églises affiliées à la National Spiritualist Association of Churches (NSAC) et à la Spiritualists 'National Union (SNU). Liens de démonstration avec la déclaration de principe n ° 9 du NSAC. "Nous affirmons que les préceptes de la prophétie et de la guérison sont des attributs divins prouvés par la médiumnité."

    Médiumnité mentale[edit]

    La «médiumnité mentale» est la communication des esprits avec un médium par télépathie. Le médium "entend" mentalement (clairaudience), "voit" (voyance) et / ou ressent (clairsentience) les messages des esprits. Directement ou à l'aide d'un guide spirituel, le médium transmet l'information au (x) destinataire (s) du message. Lorsqu'un médium fait une «lecture» pour une personne en particulier, cette personne est connue comme la «gardienne».

    Transe médiumnité[edit]

    La «médiumnité en transe» est souvent considérée comme une forme de médiumnité mentale. La plupart des médiums de transe restent conscients pendant une période de communication, où un esprit utilise l'esprit du médium pour communiquer. L'esprit ou les esprits utilisant l'esprit du médium influence l'esprit avec les pensées véhiculées. Le médium permet à l'ego de se retirer pour que le message soit délivré. Dans le même temps, on est conscient des pensées qui traversent et peut même influencer le message avec ses propres préjugés. Une telle transe ne doit pas être confondue avec le somnambulisme, car les modèles sont entièrement différents. Castillo (1995) déclare:

    Les phénomènes de transe résultent du comportement de concentration intense de l'attention, qui est le mécanisme psychologique clé de l'induction de transe. Les réponses adaptatives, y compris les formes de transe institutionnalisées, sont «accordées» aux réseaux neuronaux du cerveau.[19]

    Dans les années 1860 et 1870, les médiums de transe étaient très populaires. Le spiritisme a généralement attiré les adhérentes, dont beaucoup s'intéressaient fortement à la justice sociale. De nombreux médiums de transe ont prononcé des discours passionnés sur l'abolitionnisme, la tempérance et le suffrage des femmes.[20] Les érudits ont décrit Leonora Piper comme l'un des médiums de transe les plus célèbres de l'histoire du spiritisme.[3][21][22]

    Dans la transe profonde typique, le médium peut ne pas avoir un rappel clair de tous les messages transmis dans un état altéré; ces personnes travaillent généralement avec un assistant. Cette personne a écrit ou enregistré de manière sélective les mots du médium. L'assistant enregistrait rarement les propos de la gardienne et des autres assistants. Un exemple de ce type de relation peut être trouvé dans la collaboration au début du 20e siècle entre le médium de transe Mme Cecil M. Cook du William T. Stead Memorial Center à Chicago (un organisme religieux constitué en vertu des lois de l'État de l'Illinois) et le journaliste Lloyd Kenyon Jones. Ce dernier était un spiritualiste non médium qui transcrivait les messages de Cook en sténographie. Il les a édités pour publication sous forme de livre et de brochure.[23]

    Médiumnité physique[edit]

    Une photographie de la médium Linda Gazzera avec une poupée comme faux ectoplasme.

    La médiumnité physique est définie comme la manipulation des énergies et des systèmes énergétiques par les esprits. Ce type de médiumnité impliquerait des manifestations perceptibles, telles que des coups et des bruits forts, des voix, des objets matérialisés, des apports, des corps spirituels matérialisés ou des parties du corps telles que les mains, les jambes et les pieds. Le médium est utilisé comme source d'énergie pour de telles manifestations spirituelles. Selon certains témoignages, cela a été réalisé en utilisant l'énergie ou l'ectoplasme libéré par un médium, voir la photographie spirituelle.[24][25] Le dernier milieu physique à être testé par un comité de Scientific American était Mina Crandon en 1924.

    La plupart des médiumnités physiques sont présentées dans une pièce sombre ou faiblement éclairée. La plupart des supports physiques utilisent une gamme traditionnelle d'outils et d'accessoires, y compris des trompettes à alcool, des armoires à alcool et des tables de lévitation.

    Voix directe[edit]

    La communication vocale directe est l'affirmation selon laquelle les esprits parlent indépendamment du médium, ce qui facilite le phénomène plutôt que le produit. Le rôle du médium est de faire le lien entre les mondes physique et spirituel. Les trompettes sont souvent utilisées pour amplifier le signal, et les médiums vocaux dirigés sont parfois appelés «médiums pour trompette». Cette forme de médiumnité permet également au médium de participer au discours pendant les séances, car la voix du médium n'est pas requise par l'esprit pour communiquer. Leslie Flint était l'un des représentants les plus connus de cette forme de médiumnité.[26]

    Canalisation[edit]

    Dans la seconde moitié du 20e siècle, la médiumnité occidentale s'est développée de deux manières différentes. Un type impliquait la clairaudience ou des sensitifs qui entendent l'esprit, puis transmettent ce qu'ils entendent à leurs clients.[27] L'autre incarnation de la médiumnité non physique est une forme de canalisation dans laquelle le channeler entre en transe, ou «quitte son corps», permettant à une entité spirituelle d'emprunter son corps, qui parle ensuite à travers eux.[28] Quand en transe le médium semble passer sous le contrôle de l'esprit d'une âme disparue, entrant parfois dans un état cataleptique,[29] bien que les channelers modernes ne le soient pas[citation needed] Certains canalisateurs ouvrent les yeux lors de la canalisation et restent capables de marcher et de se comporter normalement. Le rythme et l'intonation de la voix peuvent également changer complètement.

    Un canalisateur largement connu de cette variété est J. Z. Knight, qui prétend canaliser l'esprit de Ramtha, un homme de 30 000 ans. D'autres prétendent canaliser les esprits des "dimensions futures", des maîtres ascensionnés,[30] ou, dans le cas des médiums de transe du Brahma Kumaris, Dieu.[31] D'autres canaux notables sont Jane Roberts pour Seth, Esther Hicks pour Abraham,[32] et Carla L. Rueckert pour Ra.[33][34]

    Sens psychiques[edit]

    Les sens utilisés par les médiums mentaux sont parfois définis différemment des autres domaines paranormaux. Un médium aurait des capacités psychiques, mais tous les médiums ne fonctionnent pas comme des médiums. Le terme clairvoyance, par exemple, peut inclure voir l'esprit et les visions inculquées par le monde des esprits. L'Association Parapsychologique définit la "voyance" comme une information provenant directement d'une source physique externe.[35]

  • La voyance ou «vision claire» est la capacité de voir tout ce qui n'est pas physiquement présent, comme les objets, les animaux ou les personnes. Cette vue se produit "dans l'œil de l'esprit". Certains médiums disent que c'est leur état de vision normal. D'autres disent qu'ils doivent former leur esprit à des pratiques telles que la méditation afin d'atteindre cette capacité, et que l'aide d'aides spirituels est souvent nécessaire. Certains médiums voyants peuvent voir un esprit comme s'il avait un corps physique. Ils voient la forme corporelle comme si elle était physiquement présente. D'autres médiums voient l'esprit dans leur esprit, ou il apparaît comme un film ou une émission de télévision ou une image fixe comme une photographie dans leur esprit.
  • Clairaudience ou "audition claire", est généralement définie comme la capacité d'entendre les voix ou les pensées des esprits. Certains médiums entendent comme s'ils écoutaient une personne leur parler à l'extérieur de leur tête, comme si l'Esprit est à côté ou près du médium, et d'autres médiums entendent les voix dans leur esprit comme une pensée verbale.
  • Clairsentience ou "clear sensing", c'est la capacité d'avoir une impression de ce qu'un esprit veut communiquer, ou de ressentir des sensations instillées par un esprit.
  • Clairsentinence ou «sentiment clair» est une condition dans laquelle le médium prend les maux d'un esprit, ressentant le même problème physique que la personne spirituelle avait avant la mort.
  • Clairalience ou "odeur claire" est la capacité de sentir un esprit. Par exemple, un médium peut sentir le tabac à pipe d'une personne qui a fumé pendant sa vie.
  • Clairgustance ou "dégustation claire" est la capacité de recevoir des impressions gustatives d'un esprit.
  • La claircognition ou «claire connaissance» est la capacité de savoir quelque chose sans le recevoir par des sens normaux ou psychiques. C'est un sentiment de "savoir juste". Souvent, un médium prétendra avoir le sentiment qu'un message ou une situation est "juste" ou "mauvais".
  • Explications[edit]

    Croyance paranormale[edit]

    Les spirites croient que les phénomènes produits par les médiums (médiumnité mentale et physique) sont le résultat d'agences spirituelles externes.[36] Le chercheur voyance Thomson Jay Hudson dans The Law of voyance Phenomena (1892) et Théodore Flournoy dans son livre Spiritism and Psychology (1911) ont écrit que toutes sortes de médiumnités pouvaient s'expliquer par la suggestion et la télépathie du médium et qu'il n'y avait aucune preuve de l'hypothèse de l'esprit. L'idée d'explication de la médiumnité par télépathie a ensuite été fusionnée dans l'hypothèse "super-ESP" de médiumnité qui est actuellement préconisée par certains parapsychologues.[37]

    Dans leur livre How to Think About Weird Things: Critical Thinking for a New Age, les auteurs Theodore Schick et Lewis Vaughn ont noté que l'hypothèse spirite et ESP de la médiumnité "n'a produit aucune prédiction nouvelle, suppose des entités ou des forces inconnues, et entre en conflit avec les preuve scientifique."[38]

    Scepticisme scientifique[edit]

    Les scientifiques qui étudient la psychologie anormale considèrent la médiumnité comme le résultat de la fraude et de facteurs psychologiques. La recherche en psychologie depuis plus de cent ans suggère que là où il n'y a pas de fraude, la médiumnité et les pratiques spirites peuvent s'expliquer par l'hypnose, la pensée magique et la suggestion.[39][40] La médiumnité de transe, qui, selon les spiritualistes, est causée par des esprits désincarnés s'exprimant à travers le médium, peut s'expliquer par un trouble de l'identité dissociative.[41]

    Des illusionnistes, comme Joseph Rinn, ont organisé de fausses séances au cours desquelles les modèles ont affirmé avoir observé de véritables phénomènes surnaturels.[42] Albert Moll a étudié la psychologie des gardiens de séance. Selon (Wolffram, 2012) "[Moll] a fait valoir que l'atmosphère hypnotique de la salle de séance assombrie et l'effet suggestif du prestige social et scientifique des expérimentateurs pourraient être utilisés pour expliquer pourquoi des personnes apparemment rationnelles se portaient garantes de phénomènes occultes. "[43] Les psychologues Leonard Zusne et Warren Jones dans leur livre Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking (1989) ont écrit que les contrôles des esprits sont les "produits de la propre dynamique psychologique du médium".[44]

    Un média frauduleux peut obtenir des informations sur ses modèles en écoutant secrètement ses conversations ou en cherchant dans les annuaires téléphoniques, Internet et les journaux avant les sessions.[45] Une technique appelée lecture à froid peut également être utilisée pour obtenir des informations sur le comportement du gardien, ses vêtements, sa posture et ses bijoux.[46][47]

    Le psychologue Richard Wiseman a écrit:

    La lecture à froid explique également pourquoi les médiums ont systématiquement échoué aux tests scientifiques de leurs pouvoirs. En les isolant de leurs clients, les médiums sont incapables de recueillir des informations sur la façon dont ces clients s'habillent ou se comportent. En présentant à tous les volontaires impliqués dans le test toutes les lectures, ils sont empêchés d'attribuer un sens à leur propre lecture et ne peuvent donc pas l'identifier à partir de lectures faites pour les autres. En conséquence, le type de taux de réussite très réussi dont les médiums jouissent quotidiennement s'effondre et la vérité émerge – leur succès dépend d'une application fascinante de la psychologie et non de l'existence de capacités paranormales.[48]

    Dans une série d'expériences tenant de fausses séances (Wiseman et al. 2003), des croyants et des mécréants paranormaux ont été suggérés par un acteur qu'une table était en lévitation alors qu'en fait, elle restait stationnaire. Après la séance, environ un tiers des participants ont incorrectement signalé que la table s'était déplacée. Les résultats ont montré un plus grand pourcentage de croyants déclarant que la table avait bougé. Dans une autre expérience, les croyants ont également rapporté qu'une cloche avait bougé lorsqu'elle était restée stationnaire et ont exprimé leur conviction que les fausses séances contenaient de véritables phénomènes paranormaux. Les expériences ont fortement soutenu la notion que dans la salle de séance, les croyants sont plus influençables que les mécréants pour des suggestions cohérentes avec leur croyance dans les phénomènes paranormaux.[49]

    Dans un segment télévisé de 2019 sur Last Week Tonight mettant en vedette des médiums réputés tels que Theresa Caputo, John Edward, Tyler Henry et Sylvia Browne, John Oliver a critiqué les médias pour la promotion des médiums, car cette exposition convainc les téléspectateurs que ces pouvoirs sont réels et permettent ainsi au quartier médiums pour s'attaquer aux familles en deuil. Oliver a déclaré: "… lorsque les capacités psychiques sont présentées comme authentiques, cela enhardit un vaste monde souterrain de vautours sans scrupules, plus qu'heureux de gagner de l'argent en offrant une ligne ouverte à l'au-delà, ainsi que de nombreux autres services de conneries."[50][51][52]

    Depuis ses débuts jusqu'à nos jours, les pratiques de médiumnité ont connu de nombreux cas de fraude et de ruse.[53] Les séparations se déroulent dans l'obscurité de sorte que les mauvaises conditions d'éclairage peuvent devenir une occasion facile de fraude. La médiumnité physique qui a été étudiée par les scientifiques s'est avérée être le résultat de la tromperie et de la supercherie.[54] L'ectoplasme, une substance paranormale supposée, a été révélé avoir été fabriqué à partir de gaze, de beurre, de mousseline et de tissu. Les médiums collaient également des visages découpés de magazines et de journaux sur du tissu ou sur d'autres accessoires et utilisaient des poupées en plastique dans leurs séances pour faire croire à leur public que les esprits les contactaient.[55] Lewis Spence dans son livre An Encyclopaedia of Occultism (1960) a écrit:

    Un rôle très important est joué par la fraude dans les pratiques spiritualistes, tant dans les phénomènes physiques et psychiques, ou automatiques, mais surtout dans les premiers. La fréquence avec laquelle les médiums ont été condamnés pour fraude a, en effet, incité de nombreuses personnes à abandonner l'étude de la recherche voyance, jugeant que la majeure partie des phénomènes étaient produits frauduleusement.[56]

    En Grande-Bretagne, la Society for Psychical Research a étudié les phénomènes de médiumnité. Les enquêtes critiques du SPR sur les prétendus médiums et l'exposition de faux médiums ont conduit à un certain nombre de démissions de membres spirites.[57][58] Au sujet de la fraude dans la médiumnité, Paul Kurtz a écrit:

    Sans doute, une grande importance dans le domaine du paranormal est le problème de la fraude. Le domaine de la recherche voyance et du spiritisme a été si notoirement plein de charlatans, tels que les sœurs Fox et Eusapia Palladino – des individus qui prétendent avoir un pouvoir et des dons spéciaux mais qui sont en fait des prestidigitateurs qui ont des scientifiques trompés et le public aussi – que nous doivent être particulièrement prudents quant aux réclamations faites en leur nom.[59]

    Les magiciens ont une longue histoire d'exposer les méthodes frauduleuses de médiumnité. Les premiers debunkers comprenaient Chung Ling Soo, Henry Evans et Julien Proskauer.[60] Plus tard, les magiciens pour révéler la fraude étaient Joseph Dunninger, Harry Houdini et Joseph Rinn. Rose Mackenberg, détective privé qui a travaillé avec Houdini dans les années 1920, figurait parmi les déboulonneurs les plus en vue de la fraude voyance au milieu du XXe siècle.[61]

    Années 1800[edit]

    De nombreux médiums du XIXe siècle se sont rendus coupables de fraude.[62] Alors que les partisans de la médiumnité affirment que leurs expériences sont authentiques, l'article d'Encyclopædia Britannica sur le spiritisme note en référence à un cas du XIXe siècle que "… un par un, les médiums spiritualistes se sont révélés être impliqués dans la fraude, employant parfois le techniques de magiciens de scène dans leurs tentatives de convaincre les gens de leurs pouvoirs de clairvoyance. " L'article note également que "la révélation d'une fraude généralisée au sein du mouvement spirite a gravement endommagé sa réputation et l'a propulsée en marge de la société américaine".[63]

    Lors d'une séance dans la maison de l'avocat John Snaith Rymer à Ealing en juillet 1855, un gardien Frederick Merrifield observa qu'une "main spirituelle" était un faux membre attaché à l'extrémité du bras du médium de Daniel Dunglas Home. Merrifield a également affirmé avoir vu Home utiliser son pied dans la salle de séance.[64]

    Le poète Robert Browning et son épouse Elizabeth assistèrent à une séance le 23 juillet 1855 à Ealing avec les Rymers.[65] Au cours de la séance, un visage spirituel s'est matérialisé qui, selon Home, était le fils de Browning, décédé en bas âge. Browning saisit la «matérialisation» et découvrit que c'était le pied nu de Home. Pour aggraver la tromperie, Browning n'avait jamais perdu de fils en bas âge. Le fils de Browning, Robert, dans une lettre adressée au Times le 5 décembre 1902, a fait référence à l'incident: «Une maison a été détectée dans une fraude vulgaire».[66][67] Les chercheurs Joseph McCabe et Trevor H. Hall ont exposé la "lévitation" de Home comme rien de plus que son déplacement à travers un rebord de connexion entre deux balcons en fer.[68]

    Le psychologue et chercheur voyance Stanley LeFevre Krebs avait dénoncé les Bangs Sisters comme des fraudes. Au cours d'une séance, il a utilisé un miroir caché et les a surpris en train de falsifier une lettre dans une enveloppe et d'y écrire une réponse sous la table qu'ils prétendaient qu'un esprit avait écrite.[69] Le médium britannique de matérialisation Rosina Mary Showers a été pris dans de nombreuses séances frauduleuses tout au long de sa carrière.[70] En 1874, lors d'une séance avec Edward William Cox, une gardienne regarda dans l'armoire et saisit l'esprit, la coiffure tomba et se révéla être des douches.[71]

    Dans une série d'expériences à Londres dans la maison de William Crookes en février 1875, la médium Anna Eva Fay réussit à faire croire à Crookes qu'elle avait de véritables pouvoirs psychiques. Fay a ensuite avoué sa fraude et a révélé les astuces qu'elle avait utilisées.[72] Frank Herne un médium britannique qui a formé un partenariat avec le médium Charles Williams a été exposé à plusieurs reprises lors de séances de matérialisation frauduleuses.[73] En 1875, il a été surpris en train de faire semblant d'être un esprit lors d'une séance à Liverpool et a été retrouvé "vêtu d'environ deux mètres de mousseline raidie, enroulé autour de sa tête et pendu jusqu'à sa cuisse".[74] Florence Cook avait été "formée aux arts de la séance" par Herne et a été exposée à plusieurs reprises comme un médium frauduleux.[75]

    Le médium Henry Slade a été victime de fraude à plusieurs reprises tout au long de sa carrière. Lors d'une séance en 1876 à Londres, Ray Lankester et Bryan Donkin ont arraché son ardoise avant que le message "spirituel" ne soit censé être écrit, et ont trouvé l'écriture déjà là.[76] Slade a également joué un accordéon avec une main sous la table et a prétendu que les esprits le joueraient. Le magicien Chung Ling Soo a révélé comment Slade avait exécuté le tour.[77]

    Le médium britannique Francis Ward Monck a fait l'objet d'une enquête par des chercheurs en psychologie et s'est révélé être une fraude. Le 3 novembre 1876, pendant la séance, une gardienne a demandé que Monck soit fouillé. Monck s'est enfui de la pièce, s'est enfermé dans une autre pièce et s'est échappé par une fenêtre. Une paire de gants rembourrés a été trouvée dans sa chambre, ainsi qu'une étamine, atteignant des tiges et autres appareils frauduleux dans ses bagages.[78] Après un procès, Monck a été reconnu coupable de sa médiumnité frauduleuse et condamné à trois mois de prison.[79]

    En 1876, William Eglinton a été exposé comme une fraude lorsque le chercheur voyance Thomas Colley a saisi une matérialisation "spirituelle" dans sa séance et a coupé une partie de son manteau. On a découvert que la pièce coupée correspondait à un tissu trouvé dans la valise d'Eglinton.[80] Colley a également retiré la barbe de la matérialisation et il s'est avéré qu'il s'agissait d'un faux, le même qu'un autre trouvé dans la valise d'Eglinton.[81] En 1880, lors d'une séance, un esprit nommé "Yohlande" se matérialisa, une gardienne le saisit et se révéla être le médium Mme. d'Espérance elle-même.[82]

    En septembre 1878, le médium britannique Charles Williams et son camarade de l'époque, A. Rita, furent détectés lors d'une supercherie à Amsterdam. Au cours de la séance, un esprit matérialisé a été saisi et s'est révélé être Rita et une bouteille d'huile de phosphore, de mousseline et une fausse barbe ont été trouvées parmi les deux médiums.[83] En 1882, C.E. Wood a été exposé lors d'une séance à Peterborough. Son contrôle de l'esprit indien "Pocka" s'est avéré être le médium sur ses genoux, couvert de mousseline.[84]

    En 1880, le mentaliste américain Washington Irving Bishop a publié un livre révélant comment les médiums utiliseraient les codes secrets comme astuce pour leurs lectures clairvoyantes.[85] La Commission Seybert était un groupe de professeurs de l'Université de Pennsylvanie qui, en 1884–1887, a dénoncé des médias frauduleux tels que Pierre L. O. A. Keeler et Henry Slade.[86] Les sœurs Fox ont avoué une fraude en 1888. Margaret Fox a révélé qu'elle et sa sœur avaient produit des rappels «spirituels» en se cassant les articulations des orteils.[87]

    En 1891, lors d'une séance publique avec vingt personnes assises, le médium Cecil Husk a été surpris en train de se pencher sur une table faisant semblant d'être un esprit en se couvrant le visage avec du phosphore.[88] Le magicien Will Goldston a également dévoilé la fraude de la médiumnité de Husk. Lors d'une séance, Goldston assista à une matérialisation d'un visage pâle apparu dans la pièce. Goldston a écrit: "J'ai tout de suite vu qu'il s'agissait d'un masque de gaze et que la moustache qui y était attachée était lâche d'un côté par manque de gomme. J'ai tiré sur le masque. Il s'est détaché, révélant le visage de Husk."[89] Le médium britannique de matérialisation Annie Fairlamb Mellon a été exposé comme une fraude le 12 octobre 1894. Au cours de la séance, une gardienne a saisi l'esprit matérialisé et a constaté qu'il s'agissait du Mellon à genoux avec de la mousseline blanche sur la tête et les épaules.[90]

    Le magicien Samri Baldwin a exposé les astuces des frères Davenport dans son livre The Secrets of Mahatma Land Explained (1895).[91] La médium Swami Laura Horos a été reconnue coupable de fraude à plusieurs reprises et jugée pour viol et fraude à Londres en 1901. Elle a été décrite par le magicien Harry Houdini comme "l'un des faux médiums et escrocs les plus extraordinaires que le monde ait jamais connus".[92]

    À la fin du XIXe siècle, les méthodes frauduleuses de photographes spirituels tels que David Duguid et Edward Wyllie ont été révélées par des chercheurs en psychologie.[93] Hereward Carrington a documenté diverses méthodes (avec des diagrammes) comment le médium manipulerait les plaques avant, pendant et après la séance pour produire des formes spirituelles.[94] Les matérialisations d'ectoplasmes du médium français Eva Carrière ont été dénoncées comme frauduleuses. Le faux ectoplasme de Carrière était fait de faces en papier découpées de journaux et de magazines sur lesquelles des marques de pli pouvaient parfois être vues sur les photographies.[95] Des visages découpés qu'elle a utilisés comprenaient Woodrow Wilson, le roi Ferdinand de Bulgarie, le président français Raymond Poincaré et l'actrice Mona Delza.[96]

    L'astuce de séance des frères Eddy a été révélée par le magicien Chung Ling Soo en 1898. Les frères ont utilisé une fausse main en plomb et, les mains libres de tout contrôle, jouaient des instruments de musique et déplaçaient des objets dans la salle de séance.[97] Le physiologiste Ivor Lloyd Tuckett a examiné un cas de photographie spirituelle qui, selon W. T. Stead, était authentique. Stead a rendu visite à un photographe qui avait produit une photographie de lui avec un soldat décédé connu sous le nom de "Piet Botha". Stead a affirmé que le photographe n'avait pu trouver aucune information sur Piet Botha, cependant, Tuckett a découvert qu'un article en 1899 avait été publié sur Pietrus Botha dans un hebdomadaire avec un portrait et des détails personnels.[98]

    Le milieu de transe Leonora Piper a été étudié par des chercheurs en psychologie et des psychologues à la fin du 19e et au début du 20e siècle. Dans une expérience pour tester si les contrôles de "l'esprit" de Piper étaient purement fictifs, le psychologue G. Stanley Hall a inventé une nièce appelée Bessie Beals et a demandé au "contrôle" de Piper de le contacter. Bessie est apparue, a répondu aux questions et a accepté Hall comme son oncle.[99] Le psychologue Joseph Jastrow a écrit que Piper faisait semblant d'être contrôlée par des esprits et tombait dans des pièges simples et logiques à partir de ses commentaires.[100] L'écrivain scientifique Martin Gardner a conclu que Piper était un lecteur froid qui «pêcherait» pour obtenir des informations de ses sitters de séance.[101] Le physiologiste Ivor Lloyd Tuckett qui a examiné en détail la médiumnité de Piper a écrit que cela pourrait s'expliquer par "la lecture musculaire, la pêche, les devinettes, les indices obtenus en position assise, les connaissances obtenues subrepticement, les connaissances acquises dans l'intervalle entre les séances et enfin, des faits déjà à l'intérieur de Mme . La connaissance de Piper. "[102]

    Années 1900[edit]

    En mars 1902 à Berlin, des policiers interrompent une séance du médium allemand Frau Anna Rothe. Ses mains ont été saisies et elle a été plaquée au sol. Une assistante de police a examiné physiquement Rothe et a découvert 157 fleurs ainsi que des oranges et des citrons cachés dans son jupon. Elle a été arrêtée et accusée de fraude.[103] Une autre médiatrice, Hilda Lewis, connue sous le nom de «fleur médium», a avoué une fraude.[104]

    Les chercheurs en psychologie W. W. Baggally et Everard Feilding ont dénoncé le médium de matérialisation britannique Christopher Chambers comme une fraude en 1905. Une fausse moustache a été découverte dans la salle de séance qu'il a utilisée pour fabriquer les matérialisations spirituelles.[105] The British medium Charles Eldred was exposed as a fraud in 1906. Eldred would sit in a chair in a curtained off area in the room known as a "séance cabinet". Various spirit figures would emerge from the cabinet and move around the séance room, however, it was discovered that the chair had a secret compartment that contained beards, cloths, masks, and wigs that Eldred would dress up in to fake the spirits.[106]

    The spirit photographer William Hope tricked William Crookes with a fake spirit photograph of his wife in 1906. Oliver Lodge revealed there had been obvious signs of double exposure, the picture of Lady Crookes had been copied from a wedding anniversary photograph, however, Crookes was a convinced spiritualist and claimed it was genuine evidence for spirit photography.[107]

    In 1907, Hereward Carrington exposed the tricks of fraudulent mediums such as those used in slate-writing, table-turning, trumpet mediumship, materializations, sealed-letter reading and spirit photography.[108] between 1908 and 1914 the Italian medium Francesco Carancini was investigated by voyanceal researchers and they discovered that he used phosphorus matches to produce "spirit lights" and with a freed hand would move objects in the séance room.[109]

    In 1908 at a hotel in Naples, the voyanceal researchers W. W. Baggally, Hereward Carrington and Everard Feilding attended a series of séances with Eusapia Palladino. In a report they claimed that genuine supernatural activity had occurred in the séances, this report became known as the Feilding report.[110] In 1910, Feilding returned to Naples, but this time accompanied with the magician William S. Marriott. Unlike the 1908 sittings, Feilding and Marriott detected her cheating, just as she had done in America. Her deceptions were obvious. Palladino evaded control and was caught moving objects with her foot, shaking the curtain with her hands, moving the cabinet table with her elbow and touching the séance sitters. Milbourne Christopher wrote regarding the exposure "when one knows how a feat can be done and what to look for, only the most skillful performer can maintain the illusion in the face of such informed scrutiny."[111]

    In 1910 at a séance in Grenoble, France the apport medium Charles Bailey produced two live birds in the séance room. Bailey was unaware that the dealer he had bought the birds from was present in the séance and he was exposed as a fraud.[112] The voyanceal researcher Eric Dingwall observed the medium Bert Reese in New York and claimed to have discovered his billet reading tricks.[113] The most detailed account at exposing his tricks (with diagrams) was by the magician Theodore Annemann.[114]

    The Polish medium Stanisława Tomczyk's levitation of a glass beaker was exposed and replicated in 1910 by the magician William S. Marriott by means of a hidden thread.[115] The Italian medium Lucia Sordi was exposed in 1911, she was bound to a chair by voyanceal researchers but would free herself during her séances. The tricks of another Italian medium Linda Gazzera were revealed in the same year, she would release her hands and feet from control in her séances and use them. Gazzera would not permit anyone to search her before a séance sitting, as she concealed muslin and other objects in her hair.[116]

    In 1917, Edward Clodd analyzed the mediumship of the trance medium Gladys Osborne Leonard and came to the conclusion that Leonard had known her séance sitters before she had held the séances, and could have easily obtained such information by natural means.[117] The British psychiatrist Charles Arthur Mercier wrote in his book Spiritualism and Sir Oliver Lodge (1917) that Oliver Lodge had been duped into believing mediumship by trickery and his spiritualist views were based on assumptions and not scientific evidence.[118]

    In 1918, Joseph Jastrow wrote about the tricks of Eusapia Palladino who was an expert at freeing her hands and feet from the control in the séance room.[119] In the séance room Palladino would move curtains from a distance by releasing a jet of air from a rubber bulb that she had in her hand.[120] According to the voyanceal researcher Harry Price "Her tricks were usually childish: long hairs attached to small objects in order to produce 'telekinetic movements'; the gradual substitution of one hand for two when being controlled by sitters; the production of 'phenomena' with a foot which had been surreptitiously removed from its shoe and so on."[121]

    In the 1920s the British medium Charles Albert Beare duped the Spiritualist organization the Temple of Light into believing he had genuine mediumship powers. In 1931 Beare published a confession in the newspaper Daily Express. In the confession he stated "I have deceived hundreds of people…. I have been guilty of fraud and deception in spiritualistic practices by pretending that I was controlled by a spirit guide…. I am frankly and whole-heartedly sorry that I have allowed myself to deceive people."[122] Due to the exposure of William Hope and other fraudulent spiritualists, Arthur Conan Doyle in the 1920s led a mass resignation of eighty-four members of the Society for Psychical Research, as they believed the Society was opposed to spiritualism.[123]

    Between 8 November and 31 December 1920 Gustav Geley of the Institute Metapsychique International attended fourteen séances with the medium Franek Kluski in Paris. A bowl of hot paraffin was placed in the room and according to Kluski spirits dipped their limbs into the paraffin and then into a bath of water to materialize. Three other series of séances were held in Warsaw in Kluski's own apartment, these took place over a period of three years. Kluski was not searched in any of the séances. Photographs of the molds were obtained during the four series of experiments and were published by Geley in 1924.[124][125] Harry Houdini replicated the Kluski materialization moulds by using his hands and a bowl of hot paraffin.[126]

    The British direct-voice medium Frederick Tansley Munnings was exposed as a fraud when one of his séance sitters turned the lights on which revealed him to be holding a trumpet by means of a telescopic extension piece and using an angle piece to change the auditory effect of his voice.[127] Richard Hodgson held six sittings with the medium Rosina Thompson and came to the conclusion she was a fraud as he discovered Thompson had access to documents and information about her séance sitters.[128]

    On 4 February 1922, Harry Price with James Seymour, Eric Dingwall and William S. Marriott had proven the spirit photographer William Hope was a fraud during tests at the British College of voyance Science. Price wrote in his SPR report "William Hope has been found guilty of deliberately substituting his own plates for those of a sitter… It implies that the medium brings to the sitting a duplicate slide and faked plates for fraudulent purposes."[129] The medium Kathleen Goligher was investigated by the physicist Edmund Edward Fournier d'Albe. On July 22, 1921 in a séance he observed Goligher holding the table up with her foot. He also discovered that her ectoplasm was made of muslin. During a séance d'Albe observed white muslin between Goligher's feet.[130]

    The Danish medium Einer Nielsen was investigated by a committee from the Kristiania University in Norway, 1922 and discovered in a séance that his ectoplasm was fake.[131] In 1923 the Polish medium Jan Guzyk was exposed as a fraud in a series of séances in Sorbonne in Paris. Guzyk would use his elbows and legs to move objects around the room and touch the sitters. According to Max Dessoir the trick of Guzyk was to use his "foot for voyance touches and sounds".[132]

    The voyanceal researchers Eric Dingwall and Harry Price re-published an anonymous work written by a former medium entitled Revelations of a Spirit Medium (1922) which exposed the tricks of mediumship and the fraudulent methods of producing "spirit hands".[133] Originally all the copies of the book were bought up by spiritualists and deliberately destroyed.[134] In 1923, the magician Carlos María de Heredia revealed how fake spirit hands could be made by using a rubber glove, paraffin and a jar of cold water.[135]

    The Hungarian medium Ladislas Lasslo confessed that all of his spirit materializations were fraudulent in 1924. A séance sitter was also found to be working as a confederate for Lasslo.[136][137]

    The Austrian medium Rudi Schneider was investigated in 1924 by the physicists Stefan Meyer and Karl Przibram. They caught Rudi freeing his arm in a series of séances.[138] Rudi claimed he could levitate objects but according to Harry Price a photograph taken on April 28, 1932 showed that Rudi had managed to free his arm to move a handkerchief from the table.[139] According to Warren Jay Vinton, Schneider was an expert at freeing himself from control in the séance room.[140] Oliver Gatty and Theodore Besterman who tested Schneider concluded that in their tests there was "no good evidence that Rudi Schneider possesses supernormal powers."[141]

    The spiritualists Arthur Conan Doyle and W. T. Stead were duped into believing Julius and Agnes Zancig had genuine voyance powers. Both Doyle and Stead wrote that the Zancigs performed telepathy. In 1924 Julius and Agnes Zancig confessed that their mind reading act was a trick and published the secret code and all the details of the trick method they had used under the title of Our Secrets!! in a London Newspaper.[142]

    In 1925, Samuel Soal claimed to have taken part in a series of séances with the medium Blanche Cooper who contacted the spirit of a soldier Gordon Davis and revealed the house that he had lived in. Researchers later discovered fraud as the séances had taken place in 1922, not 1925. The magician and paranormal investigator Bob Couttie revealed that Davis was alive, Soal lived close to him and had altered the records of the sittings after checking out the house. Soal's co-workers knew that he had fiddled the results but were kept quiet with threats of libel suits.[143]

    Mina Crandon claimed to materialize a "spirit hand", but when examined by biologists the hand was discovered to be made from a piece of carved animal liver.[144] The German apport medium Heinrich Melzer was discovered to be a fraud in 1926. In a séance voyanceal researchers found that Melzer had small stones attached to the back of his ears by flesh coloured tape.[145] Psychical researchers who investigated the mediumship of Maria Silbert revealed that she used her feet and toes to move objects in the séance room.[146]

    In 1930 the Polish medium Stanisława P. was tested at the Institut Metapsychique in Paris. French voyanceal researcher Eugéne Osty suspected in the séance that Stanislawa had freed her hand from control. Secret flashlight photographs that were taken revealed that her hand was free and she had moved objects on the séance table.[147] It was claimed by spiritualists that during a series of séances in 1930 the medium Eileen J. Garrett channeled secret information from the spirit of the Lieutenant Herbert Carmichael Irwin who had died in the R101 crash a few days before the séance. Researcher Melvin Harris who studied the case wrote that the information described in Garrett's séances were "either commonplace, easily absorbed bits and pieces, or plain gobblede-gook. The so-called secret information just doesn't exist."[90]

    In the 1930s Harry Price (director of the National Laboratory of Psychical Research) had investigated the medium Helen Duncan and had her perform a number of test séances. She was suspected of swallowing cheesecloth which was then regurgitated as "ectoplasm".[148] Price had proven through analysis of a sample of ectoplasm produced by Duncan, that it was made of cheesecloth.[149] Helen Duncan would also use a doll made of a painted papier-mâché mask draped in an old sheet which she pretended to her sitters was a spirit.[150] The photographs taken by Thomas Glendenning Hamilton in the 1930s of ectoplasm reveal the substance to be made of tissue paper and magazine cut-outs of people. The famous photograph taken by Hamilton of the medium Mary Ann Marshall depicts tissue paper with a cut out of Arthur Conan Doyle's head from a newspaper. Skeptics have suspected that Hamilton may have been behind the hoax.[151]

    Psychologists and researchers who studied Pearl Curran's automatic writings in the 1930s came to the conclusion Patience Worth was a fictitious creation of Curran.[152][153] In 1931 George Valiantine was exposed as a fraud in the séance room as it was discovered that he produced fraudulent "spirit" fingerprints in wax. The "spirit" thumbprint that Valiantine claimed belonged to Arthur Conan Doyle was revealed to be the print of his big toe on his right foot. It was also revealed that Valiantine made some of the prints with his elbow.[154]

    The medium Frank Decker was exposed as a fraud in 1932. A magician and séance sitter who called himself M. Taylor presented a mail bag and Decker agreed to lock himself inside it. During the séance objects were moved around the room and it was claimed spirits had released Decker from the bag. It was later discovered to have been a trick as Martin Sunshine, a magic dealer admitted that he sold Decker a trick mail bag, such as stage escapologists use, and had acted as the medium's confederate by pretending to be M. Taylor, a magician.[155] The British medium Estelle Roberts claimed to materialize an Indian spirit guide called "Red Cloud". Researcher Melvin Harris who examined some photographs of Red Cloud wrote the face was the same as Roberts and she had dressed up in a feathered war-bonnet.[90]

    In 1936, the voyanceal researcher Nandor Fodor tested the Hungarian apport medium Lajos Pap in London and during the séance a dead snake appeared. Pap was searched and was found to be wearing a device under his robe, where he had hidden the snake.[156] A photograph taken at a séance in 1937 in London shows the medium Colin Evans "levitating" in mid air. He claimed that spirits had lifted him. Evans was later discovered to be a fraud as a cord leading from a device in his hand has indicated that it was himself who triggered the flash-photograph and that all he had done was jump from his chair into the air and pretend he had levitated.[157]

    According to the magician John Booth the stage mentalist David Devant managed to fool a number of people into believing he had genuine voyance ability who did not realize that his feats were magic tricks. At St. George's Hall, London he performed a fake "clairvoyant" act where he would read a message sealed inside an envelope. The spiritualist Oliver Lodge who was present in the audience was duped by the trick and claimed that Devant had used voyance powers. In 1936 Devant in his book Secrets of My Magic revealed the trick method he had used.[158]

    The physicist Kristian Birkeland exposed the fraud of the direct voice medium Etta Wriedt. Birkeland turned on the lights during a séance, snatched her trumpets and discovered that the "spirit" noises were caused by chemical explosions induced by potassium and water and in other cases by lycopodium powder.[159] The British medium Isa Northage claimed to materialize the spirit of a surgeon known as Dr. Reynolds. When photographs taken of Reynolds were analyzed by researchers they discovered that Northage looked like Reynolds with a glued stage beard.[90]

    The magician Julien Proskauer revealed that the levitating trumpet of Jack Webber was a trick. Close examination of photographs reveal Webber to be holding a telescopic reaching rod attached to the trumpet, and sitters in his séances only believed it to have levitated because the room was so dark they could not see the rod. Webber would cover the rod with crepe paper to disguise its real construction.[160]

    In 1954, the voyanceal researcher Rudolf Lambert published a report revealing details about a case of fraud that was covered up by many early members of the Institute Metapsychique International (IMI).[161] Lambert who had studied Gustav Geley's files on the medium Eva Carrière discovered photographs depicting fraudulent ectoplasm taken by her companion Juliette Bisson.[161] Various "materializations" were artificially attached to Eva's hair by wires. The discovery was never published by Geley. Eugéne Osty (the director of the institute) and members Jean Meyer, Albert von Schrenck-Notzing and Charles Richet all knew about the fraudulent photographs but were firm believers in mediumship phenomena so demanded the scandal be kept secret.[161]

    The fraudulent medium Ronald Edwin confessed he had duped his séance sitters and revealed the fraudulent methods he had used in his book Clock Without Hands (1955).[162] The voyanceal researcher Tony Cornell investigated the mediumship of Alec Harris in 1955. During the séance "spirit" materializations emerged from a cabinet and walked around the room. Cornell wrote that a stomach rumble, nicotine smelling breath and a pulse gave it away that all the spirit figures were in fact Harris and that he had dressed up as each one behind the cabinet.[163]

    The British medium William Roy earned over £50,000 from his séance sitters. He confessed to fraud in 1958 revealing the microphone and trick-apparatus that he had used.[164] The automatic writings of the Irish medium Geraldine Cummins were analyzed by voyanceal researchers in the 1960s and they revealed that she worked as a cataloguer at the National Library of Ireland and took information from various books that would appear in her automatic writings about ancient history.[165]

    In 1960, voyance investigator Andrija Puharich and Tom O'Neill, publisher of the Spiritualist magazine voyance Observer, arranged to film two seances at Camp Chesterfield, Indiana using infrared film, intending to procure scientific proof of spirit materializations. The medium was shown the camera beforehand, and was aware that she was being filmed. However, the film revealed obvious fraud on the part of the medium and her cabinet assistant. The exposé was published in the 10 July 1960 issue of the voyance Observer.[166]:96–97

    In 1966 the son of Bishop Pike committed suicide. After his death, Pike contacted the British medium Ena Twigg for a series of séances and she claimed to have communicated with his son. Although Twigg denied formerly knowing anything about Pike and his son, the magician John Booth discovered that Twigg had already known information about the Pike family before the séances. Twigg had belonged to the same denomination of Bishop Pike, he had preached at a cathedral in Kent and she had known information about him and his deceased son from newspapers.[167]

    In 1970 two voyanceal researchers investigated the direct-voice medium Leslie Flint and found that all the "spirit" voices in his séance sounded exactly like himself and attributed his mediumship to "second-rate ventriloquism".[168] The medium Arthur Ford died leaving specific instructions that all of his files should be burned. In 1971 after his death, voyanceal researchers discovered his files but instead of burning them they were examined and discovered to be filled with obituaries, newspaper articles and other information, which enabled Ford to research his séance sitters backgrounds.[169]

    Ronald Pearsall in his book Table-rappers: The Victorians and the Occult (1972) documented how every Victorian medium investigated had been exposed as using trickery, in the book he revealed how mediums would even use acrobatic techniques during séances to convince audiences of spirit presences.[170]

    In 1976, M. Lamar Keene, a medium in Florida and at the Spiritualist Camp Chesterfield in Indiana, confessed to defrauding the public in his book The voyance Mafia. Keene detailed a multitude of common stage magic techniques utilized by mediums which are supposed to give an appearance of paranormal powers or supernatural involvement.[171]

    After her death in the 1980s the medium Doris Stokes was accused of fraud, by author and investigator Ian Wilson. Wilson stated that Mrs Stokes planted specific people in her audience and did prior research into her sitters.[172] Rita Goold a physical medium during the 1980s was accused of fraud, by the voyanceal researcher Tony Cornell. He claimed she would dress up as the spirits in her séances and would play music during them which provided cover for her to change clothes.[173]

    The spirit guide Silver Belle was made from cardboard. Both Ethel Post-Parrish and the lady standing outside of the curtain were in on the hoax.

    The British journalist Ruth Brandon published the book The Spiritualists (1983) which exposed the fraud of the Victorian mediums.[3] The book received positive reviews and has been influential to skeptics of spiritualism.[174] The British apport medium Paul McElhoney was exposed as a fraud during a séance in Osset, Yorkshire in 1983. The tape recorder that McElhoney took to his séances was investigated and a black tape was discovered bound around the battery compartment and inside carnation flowers were found as well as a key-ring torch and other objects.[90]

    In 1988, the magician Bob Couttie criticized the paranormal author Brian Inglis for deliberately ignoring evidence of fraud in mediumship. Couttie wrote Inglis had not familiarized himself with magician techniques.[175] In 1990 the researcher Gordon Stein discovered that the levitation photograph of the medium Carmine Mirabelli was fraudulent. The photograph was a trick as there were signs of chemical retouching under Mirabelli's feet. The retouching showed that Mirabelli was not levitating but was standing on a ladder which was erased from the photograph.[176]

    In 1991, Wendy Grossman in the New Scientist criticized the parapsychologist Stephen E. Braude for ignoring evidence of fraud in mediumship. According to Grossman "[Braude] accuses sceptics of ignoring the evidence he believes is solid, but himself ignores evidence that does not suit him. If a medium was caught cheating on some occasions, he says, the rest of that medium's phenomena were still genuine." Grossman came to the conclusion that Braude did not do proper research on the subject and should study "the art of conjuring."[177]

    In 1992, Richard Wiseman analyzed the Feilding report of Eusapia Palladino and argued that she employed a secret accomplice that could enter the room by a fake door panel positioned near the séance cabinet. Wiseman discovered this trick was already mentioned in a book from 1851, he also visited a carpenter and skilled magician who constructed a door within an hour with a false panel. The accomplice was suspected to be her second husband, who insisted on bringing Palladino to the hotel where the séances took place.[178] Massimo Polidoro and Gian Marco Rinaldi also analyzed the Feilding report but came to the conclusion no secret accomplice was needed as Palladino during the 1908 Naples séances could have produced the phenomena by using her foot.[179]

    Colin Fry was exposed in 1992 when during a séance the lights were unexpectedly turned on and he was seen holding a spirit trumpet in the air, which the audience had been led to believe was being levitated by spiritual energy.[180] In 1997, Massimo Polidoro and Luigi Garlaschelli produced wax-moulds directly from one's hand which were exactly the same copies as Gustav Geley obtained from Franek Kluski, which are kept at the Institute Metapsychique International.[181]

    A series of mediumistic séances known as the Scole Experiment took place between 1993 and 1998 in the presence of the researchers David Fontana, Arthur Ellison and Montague Keen. This has produced photographs, audio recordings and physical objects which appeared in the dark séance room (known as apports).[182] A criticism of the experiment was that it was flawed because it did not rule out the possibility of fraud. The skeptical investigator Brian Dunning wrote the Scole experiments fail in many ways. The séances were held in the basement of two of the mediums, only total darkness was allowed with no night vision apparatus as it might "frighten the spirits away". The box containing the film was not examined and could easily have been accessible to fraud. And finally, even though many years have passed, there has been no follow-up, no further research by any credible agency or published accounts.[182]

    Récent[edit]

    Joe Nickell, a notable skeptic of mediumship. According to Nickell, modern mediums use mentalist techniques such as cold reading.

    The VERITAS Research Program of the Laboratory for Advances in Consciousness and Health in the Department of Psychology at the University of Arizona, run by the parapsychologist Gary Schwartz, was created primarily to test the hypothesis that the consciousness (or identity) of a person survives physical death.[183] Schwartz claimed his experiments were indicative of survival, but do not yet provide conclusive proof.[184][185] The experiments described by Schwartz have received criticism from the scientific community for being inadequately designed and using poor controls.[186][187]

    Ray Hyman discovered many methodological errors with Schwartz's research including; "Inappropriate control comparisons", "Failure to use double-blind procedures", "Creating non-falsifiable outcomes by reinterpreting failures as successes" and "Failure to independently check on facts the sitters endorsed as true". Hyman wrote "Even if the research program were not compromised by these defects, the claims being made would require replication by independent investigators." Hyman criticizes Schwartz's decision to publish his results without gathering "evidence for their hypothesis that would meet generally accepted scientific criteria… they have lost credibility."[188]

    In 2003, skeptic investigator Massimo Polidoro in his book Secrets of the Psychics documented the history of fraud in mediumship and spiritualistic practices as well as the psychology of voyance deception.[53] Terence Hines in his book Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (2003) has written:

    Modern spiritualists and voyances keep detailed files on their victims. As might be expected, these files can be very valuable and are often passed on from one medium or voyance to another when one retires or dies. Even if a voyance doesn't use a private detective or have immediate access to driver's license records and such, there is still a very powerful technique that will allow the voyance to convince people that the voyance knows all about them, their problems, and their deep personal secrets, fears, and desires. The technique is called cold reading and is probably as old as charlatanism itself… If John Edward (or any of the other self-proclaimed speakers with the dead) really could communicate with the dead, it would be a trivial matter to prove it. All that would be necessary would be for him to contact any of the thousands of missing persons who are presumed dead—famous (e.g., Jimmy Hoffa, Judge Crater) or otherwise—and correctly report where the body is. Of course, this is never done. All we get, instead, are platitudes to the effect that Aunt Millie, who liked green plates, is happy on the other side.[189]

    An experiment conducted by the British Psychological Society in 2005 suggests that under the controlled condition of the experiment, people who claimed to be professional mediums do not demonstrate the mediumistic ability. In the experiment, mediums were assigned to work the participants chosen to be "sitters." The mediums claimed to contact the deceased who were related to the sitters. The research gather the numbers of the statements made and have the sitters rate the accuracy of the statements. The readings that were considered to be somewhat accurate by the sitters were very generalized, and the ones that were considered inaccurate were the ones that were very specific.[190]

    On Fox News on the Geraldo at Large show, October 6, 2007, Geraldo Rivera and other investigators accused Schwartz as a fraud as he had overstepped his position as a university researcher by requesting over three million dollars from a bereaved father who had lost his son. Schwartz claimed to have contacted the spirit of a 25-year-old man in the bathroom of his parents house and it is alleged he attempted to charge the family 3.5 million dollars for his mediumship services. Schwartz responded saying that the allegations were set up to destroy his science credibility.[191][192]

    In 2013 Rose Marks and members of her family were convicted of fraud for a series of crimes spanning 20 years entailing between $20 and $45 million. They told vulnerable clients that to solve their problems they had to give the purported voyances money and valuables. Marks and family promised to return the cash and goods after "cleansing" them. Prosecutors established they had no intent to return the property.[193][194][195]

    The exposures of fraudulent activity led to a rapid decline in ectoplasm and materialization séances.[196] Investigator Joe Nickell has written that modern self-proclaimed mediums like John Edward, Sylvia Browne, Rosemary Altea and James Van Praagh are avoiding the Victorian tradition of dark rooms, spirit handwriting and flying tambourines as these methods risk exposure. They instead use "mental mediumship" tactics like cold reading or gleaning information from sitters beforehand (hot reading). Group readings also improve hits by making general statements with conviction, which will fit at least one person in the audience. Shows are carefully edited before airing to show only what appears to be hits and removing anything that does not reflect well on the medium.[197]

    Michael Shermer criticized mediums in Scientific American, saying, "mediums are unethical and dangerous: they prey on the emotions of the grieving. As grief counselors know, death is best faced head-on as a part of life." Shermer wrote that the human urge to seek connections between events that may form patterns meaningful for survival is a function of natural evolution, and called the alleged ability of mediums to talk to the dead "a well-known illusion of a meaningful pattern."[198]

    According to James Randi, a skeptic who has debunked many claims of voyance ability and uncovered fraudulent practices,[199] mediums who do cold readings "fish, suggest possibilities, make educated guesses and give options." Randi has a standing offer of $1 million US dollars for anyone who can demonstrate voyance ability under controlled conditions. Most prominent voyances and mediums have not taken up his offer.[200]

    The key role in mediumship of this sort is played by "effect of subjective confirmation" (see Barnum effect) — people are predisposed to consider reliable that information which though is casual coincidence or a guess, however it seems to them personally important and significant and answers their personal belief.[201]

    The article about this phenomenon in Encyclopædia Britannica places emphasis that "… one by one spiritual mediums were convicted of fraud, sometimes using the tricks borrowed from scenic "magicians" to convince their paranormal abilities". In the article it is also noted that "… the opening of the wide ranging fraud happening on spiritualistic sessions caused serious damage to reputation of the movement of a Spiritualism and in the USA pushed it on the public periphery".[202]

    In March 2017, medium Thomas John was targeted in a sting operation and caught doing a hot reading. The sting was planned and implemented by skeptical activist Susan Gerbic and mentalist Mark Edward. The unmarried couple attended John's show using aliases, and were "read" as a married couple Susanna and Mark Wilson by John. During the entire reading, John failed to determine the actual identities of Gerbic and Edward, or that they were being deceptive during his reading. All personal information he gave them matched what was on their falsified Facebook accounts, rather than being about their actual lives, and John pretended he was getting this information from Gerbic and Edward's supposedly dead—but actually nonexistent—relatives.[203][204]

    As Jack Hitt reported in The New York Times:

    "Over the course of the reading, John comfortably laid down the specifics of Susanna Wilson’s life — he named “Andy” and amazingly knew him to be her twin. He knew that she and her brother grew up in Michigan and that his girlfriend was Maria. He knew about Susanna’s father-in-law and how he died."[205]

    These details were from the falsified Facebook accounts for the pair which were prepared by a group of skeptics in advance of the reading, and Gerbic and Edward were not aware of the specific information in these accounts.[206] This blinding was done in order to avoid John later being able to claim he obtained the false information by reading Gerbic and Edward's minds.[203][204] In her report, Gerbic also revealed that during an after-show private event, John disclosed in a group setting that at least one of the people in the audience which he did a reading about was actually his own student.[207][203][204]

    The same week that the Thomas John sting revelation was made in The New York Times, John's claimed mediumship abilities portrayed in the Lifetime reality TV show called Seatbelt voyance were challenged by Gerbic in an article published by Skeptical Inquirer. In the show, John is a ride-share driver who surprises “unsuspecting” passengers when he delivers messages from their deceased relatives. Gerbic investigated and revealed that John's passengers are actually actors, several of which are documented in IMDb. Gerbic concluded that the riders were likely hired to ride with John, but were probably not acting when talking with him. She concluded that the details about their lives mentioned by John were easily found on social media sources, and likely fed to John, making the readings actually hot readings. One rider, Wendy Westmoreland, played a character on Stalked by a Doctor, a TV show also produced by Lifetime.[207][208]

    Voir également[edit]

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  • ^ Harry Price. (1939). Fifty Years of Psychical Research. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7661-4242-8
  • ^ Richard Wiseman. (1997). Deception & Self-Deception: Investigating Psychics. Prometheus Books. p. 23
  • ^ Richard Wiseman. (1997). Deception & Self-Deception: Investigating Psychics. Prometheus Books. p. 12
  • ^ William Hodson Brock. (2008). William Crookes (1832–1919) and the Commercialization of Science. Ashgate. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-7546-6322-5
  • ^ Hereward Carrington. (1907). The Physical Phenomena of Spiritualism. Herbert B. Turner & Co.
  • ^ Rodger Anderson. (2006). Psychics, Sensitives And Somnambules. McFarland & Company. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7864-2770-3
  • ^ The New Paranatural Paradigm: Claims of Communicating with the Dead by Paul Kurtz
  • ^ Milbourne Christopher. (1971). ESP, Seers & Psychics. Crowell. pp. 188–204. ISBN 978-0-690-26815-7
  • Everard Feilding, William Marriott. (1910). Report on Further Series of Sittings with Eusapia Palladino at Naples. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. Volume 15. pp. 20–32.
  • ^ J. Gordon Melton. (2007). The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena. Visible Ink Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-57859-209-8
  • ^ Eric Dingwall. (1927). How to Go to a Medium. K. Paul, Trench, Trübner. pp. 31–32.
  • ^ Theodore Annemann. (1983). Practical Mental Magic. Dover Publications. pp. 7–11
  • ^ Pearson's Magazine. June 1910. C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. p. 615
  • ^ Joseph McCabe. (1920). Is Spiritualism Based On Fraud? The Evidence Given By Sir A. C. Doyle and Others Drastically Examined. London Watts & Co. pp. 33–34
  • ^ Edward Clodd. (1917). The Question: A Brief History and Examination of Modern Spiritualism. Chapter Mrs. Leonard and Others. pp. 215–41
  • ^ Charles Arthur Mercier. (1917). Spiritualism and Sir Oliver Lodge. London: Mental Culture Enterprise.
  • ^ Joseph Jastrow (1918). The Psychology of Conviction. Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 101–27
  • ^ Fakebusters II: Scientific Detection of Fakery in Art and Philately
  • ^ Harry Price, Fifty Years of Psychical Research, chapter XI: The Mechanics of Spiritualism, F&W Media International, Ltd, 2012.
  • ^ Harry Price. (1939). Chapter The Mechanics of Spiritualism in Fifty Years of Psychical Research. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7661-4242-8
  • ^ G. K. Nelson. (2013). Spiritualism and Society. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-415-71462-4
  • ^ Clément Chéroux. (2005). The Perfect Medium: Photography and the Occult. Yale University Press. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-300-11136-1
  • ^ D. Scott Rogo. (1978). Mind and Motion: The Riddle of Psychokinesis. Taplinger Publishing. pp. 245–46. ISBN 978-0-8008-2455-6
  • ^ Massimo Polidoro. (2001). Final Séance: The Strange Friendship Between Houdini and Conan Doyle. Prometheus Books. pp. 71–73. ISBN 978-1-57392-896-0
  • ^ Julian Franklyn. (2003). A Survey of the Occult. pp. 238–39. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7661-3007-4
  • ^ Joseph McCabe. (1920). Spiritualism: A Popular History from 1847. Dodd, Mead and Company. p. 192
  • ^ Photos of Ghosts: The Burden of Believing the Unbelievable by Massimo Polidoro
  • ^ Edmund Edward Fournier d'Albe. (1922). The Goligher Circle. J. M. Watkins. p. 37
  • ^ Universitetskomiteen, Mediet Einer Nielsen, kontrolundersøkelser av universitetskomiteen i Kristiania. (Kristiania 1922). "Rapport fra den av Norsk Selskab for Psykisk Forskning nedsatte Kontrolkomité", Norsk Tidsskrift for Psykisk Forskning 1 (1921–22).
  • ^ Lewis Spence. (2003). Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Kessinger publishing. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-7661-2815-6
  • ^ Eric Dingwall, Harry Price. (1922). Revelations of a Spirit Medium. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.
  • ^ Georgess McHargue. (1972). Facts, Frauds, and Phantasms: A Survey of the Spiritualist Movement. Doubleday. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-385-05305-1
  • ^ Carlos María de Heredia. (1923). Spirit Hands, "ectoplasm," and Rubber Gloves. Popular Mechanics. pp. 14–15
  • ^ Paul Tabori. (1961). The Art of Folly. Prentice-Hall International, Inc. pp. 178–79
  • ^ "Fraudulent Mediums". Lyceum Library.
  • ^ Julian Franklyn. (2003). Dictionary of the Occult. Kessinger Publishing. p. 228
  • ^ Harry Price. (1936). Confessions of a Ghost-Hunter. Putnam. p. 232
  • ^ Warren Jay Vinton. The Famous Schneider Mediumship: A Critical Study of Alleged Supernormal Events. No. 4 April 1927 in C. K. Ogden Psyche: An Annual General and Linguistic Psychology. 1920–1952 Routledge/Thoemmes Press, 1995.
  • ^ "Further Tests of the Medium Rudi Schneider". La nature. 134 (3399): 965–966. 1934-12-01. Bibcode:1934Natur.134S.965.. doi:10.1038/134965c0. ISSN 1476-4687.
  • ^ John Booth. (1986). voyance Paradoxes. Prometheus Books. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-87975-358-0
  • ^ Bob Couttie. (1988). Forbidden Knowledge: The Paranormal Paradox. Lutterworth Press. pp. 104–05
  • ^ Brian Righi. (2008). Ghosts, Apparitions and Poltergeists: An Exploration of the Supernatural through History. Llewellyn Publications. Llewellyn Publications. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7387-1363-2 "One medium of the 1920s, Mina Crandon, became famous for producing ectoplasm during her sittings. At the height of the séance, she was even able to produce a tiny ectoplasmic hand from her navel, which waved about in the darkness. Her career ended when Harvard biologists were able to examine the tiny hand and found it to be nothing more than a carved piece of animal liver."
  • ^ E. Clephan Palmer. (2003). The Riddle of Spiritualism. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 35–39. ISBN 978-0-7661-7931-8
  • ^ Lewis Spence. (1991). Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Gale Research Company. p. 1522. Massimo Polidoro. (2001). Final Seance: The Strange Friendship Between Houdini and Conan Doyle. Prometheus Books. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-57392-896-0
  • ^ Lewis Spence. (2003). Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Kessinger Publishing. p. 880
  • ^ Harry Price. (1931). Regurgitation and the Duncan Mediumship. (Bulletin I of the National Laboratory of Psychical Research, 120pp with 44 illustrations.)
  • ^ Marina Warner. (2008). Phantasmagoria: Spirit Visions, Metaphors, and Media into the Twenty-first Century. Oxford University Press. p. 299
  • ^ Jason Karl. (2007). An Illustrated History of the Haunted World. New Holland Publishers. p. 79
  • ^ Jokinen, Tom (2012-10-25). "Touching the Dead: Spooky Winnipeg". Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  • ^ Joseph Jastrow. (1935). Patience Worth: An Alter Ego in Wish and Wisdom: Episodes in the Vagaries of Belief. D. Appleton-Century Company. pp. 78–92. Lyon Sprague de Camp. (1966). Spirits, Stars, and Spells. New York: Canaveral. p. 247. Robert Goldenson. (1973). Mysteries of the Mind: The Drama of Human Behavior. Doubleday. pp. 44–53. Milbourne Christopher. (1970). ESP, Seers and Psychics. New York: Crowell. pp. 128–29
  • ^ Patience Worth by Robert Todd Carroll
  • ^ Julian Franklyn. (2003). A Survey of the Occult. pp. 263–395. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7661-3007-4
  • ^ M. Lamar Keene. (1997). The voyance Mafia. Prometheus Books. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-57392-161-9
  • ^ Nandor Fodor. (1960). The Haunted Mind: A Psychoanalyst Looks at the Supernatural. Helix Press. p. 100-22
  • ^ Joe Nickell. (2005). Camera Clues: A Handbook for Photographic Investigation. The University Press of Kentucky. pp. 177–78. ISBN 978-0-8131-9124-9
  • ^ John Booth. (1986). voyance Paradoxes. Prometheus Books. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-87975-358-0
  • ^ Joseph McCabe. (1920). Is Spiritualism based on Fraud?: The Evidence Given by Sir A.C. Doyle and Others Drastically Examined. London: Watts & CO. p. 126
  • ^ Julien Proskauer. (1946). The Dead Do Not Talk. Harper & Brothers. p. 94
  • ^ a b c Sofie Lachapelle. (2011). Investigating the Supernatural: From Spiritism and Occultism to Psychical Research and Metavoyances in France, 1853–1931. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 144–45. ISBN 978-1-4214-0013-6
  • ^ Ronald Edwin. (1955). Clock Without Hands. Sidgwick.
  • ^ Tony Cornell. (2002). Investigating the Paranormal. Helix Press New York. pp. 327–38. ISBN 978-0-912328-98-0
  • ^ Georgess McHargue. (1972). Facts, Frauds, and Phantasms: A Survey of the Spiritualist Movement. Doubleday. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-385-05305-1
  • ^ Eric Robertson Dodds. (2000). Missing Persons: An Autobiography. Oxford University Press. pp. 105–06. ISBN 978-0-19-812086-5
  • ^ Allen Spraggett, The Unexplained, (New York: New American Library, 1967).
  • ^ John Booth. (1986). voyance Paradoxes. Prometheus Books. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-87975-358-0
  • ^ M. Lamar Keene. (1997). The voyance Mafia. Prometheus Books. p 122. ISBN 978-1-57392-161-9 "A medium still riding high in England is Leslie Flint, famed as an exponent of direct voice. William Rauscher and Allen Spraggett, who attended a sitting Flint held in 1970 in New York, said that it was the most abysmal flop of any seance they had endured. All the spirit voices sounded exactly like the medium and displayed an incredible ignorance of nearly everything pertaining to the sitters. The "mediumship " was second-rate ventriloquism."
  • ^ Tim Madigan, David Goicoechea, Paul Kurtz. Promethean Love: Paul Kurtz and the Humanistic Perspective on Love. Cambridge Scholars Press. p. 293
  • ^ Ronald Pearsall. Table-rappers: The Victorians and the Occult The History Press Ltd; New Ed edition, 2004 ISBN 0-7509-3684-3
  • ^ Keene, Lamar (1997). The voyance Mafia. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-161-0 (Republication of 1976 edition by St. Martin's Press.)
  • ^ Ian Wilson. (1989). The After Death Experience. William Morrow and Company. ISBN 978-0-688-08000-6
  • ^ Tony Cornell. (2002). Investigating the Paranormal. Helix Press New York. pp. 347–52. ISBN 978-0-912328-98-0
  • ^ Martin Gardner. (1988). The New Age: Notes of a Fringe Watcher. Prometheus Books. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-87975-432-7
  • ^ Bob Couttie. (1988). Forbidden Knowledge: The Paranormal Paradox. Lutterworth Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-7188-2686-4
  • ^ Joe Nickell. (2005). Camera Clues: A Handbook for Photographic Investigation. The University Press of Kentucky. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-8131-9124-9
  • ^ Grossman, Wendy. (1991). Dismissal is not disproof. New Scientist. Vol. 130. Issue 1768, p. 53.
  • ^ Richard Wiseman. (1997). Chapter 3 The Feilding Report: A Reconsideration. In Deception and Self-Deception: Investigating Psychics. Prometheus Press. ISBN 1-57392-121-1
  • ^ Massimo Polidoro. (2003). Secrets of the Psychics: Investigating Paranormal Claims. Prometheus Books. pp. 65–95. ISBN 978-1-59102-086-8
  • ^ Colin Fry an Evaluation
  • ^ Massimo Polidoro. (2003). Secrets of the Psychics: Investigating Paranormal Claims. Prometheus Books. pp. 168–76. ISBN 978-1-59102-086-8
  • ^ a b Dunning, Brian (2009-11-10). "Skeptoid #179: The Scole Experiment". Skeptoid. Retrieved 2011-10-30.
  • ^ The VERITAS Research Program of the Laboratory for Advances in Consciousness and Health in the Department of Psychology at the University of Arizona Archived 2007-02-12 at the Wayback Machine
  • ^ newsnet5.com Archived 2009-08-21 at the Wayback Machine
  • ^ The Truth about Medium by Gary E. Schwartz, Ph. D., with William L. Simon, Hampton Books, 2005, p. 119
  • ^ Book Review by Robert T. Carroll
  • ^ Gary Schwartz's Subjective Evaluation of Mediums: Veritas or Wishful Thinking by Robert Todd Carroll
  • ^ Hyman, Ray (Jan–Feb 2003). "How Not to Test Mediums: Critiquing the Afterlife Experiments". Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
  • ^ Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 56–64. ISBN 978-1-57392-979-0
  • ^ O'Keeffe, Ciaran (May 2005). "Testing Alleged Mediumship: Methods and Results". British Journal of Psychology. 96 (2): 165–179. doi:10.1348/000712605X36361. ISSN 0007-1269. PMID 15969829.
  • ^ Aykroyd, Peter. and Nart, Angela. (2009). A History of Ghosts: the True Story of Seances, Mediums, Ghosts, and Ghostbusters. Rodale. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-60529-875-7
  • ^ Geraldo at Large show, October 6, 2007
  • ^ "Jury Convicts Defendant in $25 Million Fraud Scheme" (Press release). Southern District of Florida, US Attorney's Office, US Department of Justice. 2013-09-26. Archived from the original on 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
  • ^ Musgrave, Jane (2013-09-27). "voyance convicted on all fraud counts". The Palm Beach Post. 105 (171) (First ed.). p. 1.
  • ^ Vasquez, Michael (2011-08-16). "voyance scam a $40 million Fort Lauderdale – family affair, feds allege – A Fort Lauderdale family spent the last 20 years raking in millions as fake voyances, prosecutors allege in a newly unsealed indictment". The Miami Herald. – via NewsBank (subscription required).
  • ^ J. Gordon Melton. (2007). The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena. Visible Ink Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-57859-209-8
  • ^ "Investigative Files: John Edward: Hustling the Bereaved". CSI. Nov–Dec 2001. Retrieved 2011-05-12.
  • ^ Shermer, Michael (August 2001). "Deconstructing the Dead, "Crossing over" to expose the tricks of popular spirit mediums". Scientific American. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  • ^ "James Randi's Swift". Randi.org. April 21, 2006. Retrieved 2012-01-03.
  • ^ Woliver, Robbie (July 16, 2000). "An Encounter With a Television voyance". Le New York Times. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  • ^ Robert T. Carroll. Subjective validation. // The Skeptic's Dictionary.
  • ^ Spiritualism (religion). www.britannica.com.
  • ^ a b c Gerbic, Susan (February 21, 2019). "Operation Pizza Roll- Thomas John". Archived from the original on February 23, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  • ^ a b c Westbrook, Thomas (28 February 2019). "Thomas John (The Seatbelt voyance) – Busted for Cheating!". Youtube.com. Holy Koolaid. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  • ^ Hitt, Jack (February 26, 2019). "Inside the Secret Sting Operations to Expose Celebrity Psychics". New York Times. Archived from the original on February 26, 2019. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  • ^ Garza, Frida (27 February 2019). "Of Course Psychics Are Reading Your Facebook Page". Jezebel.com. Jezebel. Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  • ^ a b Mehta, Hemant (23 February 2019). "Skeptics Set a Trap and a So-Called "Celebrity Medium" Fell for the Hoax". Friendlyatheist.patheos.com. Patheos. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  • ^ Gerbic, Susan (February 21, 2019). "Buckle Up – Seatbelt voyance". Center for Inquiry. Archived from the original on February 23, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  • Lectures complémentaires[edit]

  • Ruth Brandon. (1983). The Spiritualists: The Passion for the Occult in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Alfred E. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-52740-6
  • Edward Clodd. (1917). The Question: A Brief History and Examination of Modern Spiritualism. Grant Richards, London.
  • Stuart Cumberland. (1919). Spiritualism: The Inside Truth. London: Odhams.
  • Joseph Dunninger. (1935). Inside the Medium's Cabinet. New York, D. Kemp and Company.
  • Willis Dutcher. (1922). On the Other Side of the Footlights: An Expose of Routines, Apparatus and Deceptions Resorted to by Mediums, Clairvoyants, Fortune Tellers and Crystal Gazers in Deluding the Public. Berlin, WI: Heaney Magic.
  • Walter Mann. (1919). The Follies and Frauds of Spiritualism. Rationalist Association. London: Watts & Co.
  • Joseph McCabe. (1920). Scientific Men and Spiritualism: A Skeptic's Analysis. The Living Age. June 12. pp. 652–57. A skeptical look at SPR members who had supported Spiritualism, concludes they were duped by fraudulent mediums.
  • Joseph McCabe. (1920). Is Spiritualism Based On Fraud? The Evidence Given By Sir A. C. Doyle and Others Drastically Examined. London: Watts & Co.
  • Georgess McHargue. (1972). Facts, Frauds, and Phantasms: A Survey of the Spiritualist Movement. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-05305-1
  • Alex Owen. (2004). The Darkened Room: Women, Power, and Spiritualism in Late Victorian England. University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-64205-5
  • Frank Podmore. (1911). The Newer Spiritualism. Henry Holt and Company.
  • Massimo Polidoro. (2003). Secrets of the Psychics: Investigating Paranormal Claims. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-086-8
  • Harry Price and Eric Dingwall. (1975). Revelations of a Spirit Medium. Arno Press. Reprint of 1891 edition by Charles F. Pidgeon. This rare, overlooked, and forgotten, book gives the "insider's knowledge" of 19th century deceptions.
  • Joseph Rinn. (1950). Sixty Years Of Psychical Research: Houdini And I Among The Spiritualists. Truth Seeker.
  • Chung Ling Soo. (1898). Spirit Slate Writing and Kindred Phenomena. Munn & Company.
  • Richard Wiseman. (1997). Deception & Self-Deception: Investigating Psychics. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-121-3
  • Liens externes[edit]

    Médiumnité – Wikipedia
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